Urine Bacteria are microorganisms that can be detected in the urine. The presence of bacteria in the urine may indicate a urinary tract infection.

iollo markers that associate with Bacteria

Hippuric acid

Hippuric acid is partly derived via gut microbial metabolism of polyphenols. Higher amounts can indicate increased bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds.


Indole is produced by bacterial metabolism of tryptophan in the gut. High levels of indole may indicate increased bacterial activity or gut dysbiosis.

Indoleacetic acid

Indoleacetic acid is a metabolite produced from bacterial breakdown of tryptophan. Elevated levels can reflect increased bacterial load or imbalanced gut microbiome.

Indolepropionic acid

Indolepropionic acid is formed by bacterial action on tryptophan in the intestines. High amounts suggest greater bacterial metabolism and potential gut flora imbalances.

Indoxyl sulfate

Indoxyl sulfate is derived from bacterial fermentation of tryptophan and is a uremic toxin. Increased levels are associated with an altered gut microbiome composition.

p-Cresol sulfate

p-Cresol sulfate is generated by intestinal bacteria from tyrosine. Elevated concentrations are linked to dysbiosis and overgrowth of certain bacterial species.