Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels by allowing glucose to enter cells for energy. High levels of insulin can indicate insulin resistance or prediabetes.

iollo markers that associate with Insulin


Alanine is released by skeletal muscle during fasting and is a substrate for hepatic gluconeogenesis, so it may influence insulin sensitivity.


Ceramides are lipid molecules that can accumulate in tissues and interfere with insulin signaling. Elevated ceramide levels are associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes.

Glutamic Acid

Glutamate is a precursor to the neurotransmitter GABA which regulates pancreatic insulin secretion. Elevated glutamate may impair insulin response.


Isoleucine, along with other branched-chain amino acids, is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, possibly by activating mTOR signaling.


Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, is associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling, increasing risk of metabolic disorders.


Aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine tend to be elevated in insulin resistant states and are predictive of future diabetes risk.


Tyrosine, an aromatic amino acid, is associated with insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies.


Branched-chain amino acids like valine are associated with insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes, likely by disrupting insulin signaling pathways.