Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. High levels of CK can indicate damage to these tissues, such as after a heart attack or muscle injury.

iollo markers that associate with Creatine kinase/CK


Acetylcarnitine, synthesized from carnitine and acetyl-CoA, helps maintain mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle injury associated with elevated CK could disrupt acetylcarnitine metabolism.


Carnitine helps transport fatty acids into mitochondria for energy production in skeletal muscle. Muscle damage or disease marked by high CK levels may impair carnitine utilization and increase circulating carnitine.


Creatinine is formed from the breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscle. Increased creatine kinase levels indicate muscle damage or disease and will elevate blood creatinine levels.

Lactic acid

Lactic acid builds up when oxygen is limited, such as during intense exercise or with muscle damage. Elevated CK and lactate together can indicate muscle injury or disease.