Apolipoprotein B (Apo B) is a protein found in LDL cholesterol and is used to estimate the total number of LDL particles in the blood. High levels of Apo B are associated with an increased risk of heart disease.

iollo markers that associate with Apolipoprotein B (Apo B)

Cholesteryl ester 18:2

Cholesteryl esters, especially those containing linoleic acid (18:2), are major components of LDL particles, which contain Apo B as their primary apolipoprotein. Higher cholesteryl ester levels correlate with increased LDL and Apo B.

Phosphatidylcholine aa C34:2

PC aa C34:2 is another phosphatidylcholine species that is a structural component of LDL. Its level relates to the number of LDL particles and Apo B.

Phosphatidylcholine aa C36:2

Phosphatidylcholines are key phospholipids in LDL particles. PC aa C36:2 likely reflects LDL particle concentration and therefore correlates with Apo B levels, since each LDL particle contains one Apo B molecule.

Phosphatidylcholine ae C36:4

This phosphatidylcholine species containing arachidonic acid (20:4) is associated with LDL particles and Apo B levels, although the relationship is not as strong as some other PCs.

Sphingomyelin C16:0

Sphingomyelins are sphingolipids present in LDL particles. SM C16:0 levels tend to correlate positively with LDL concentration and Apo B.


Triacylglycerides with palmitic acid (16:0) and 34:2 fatty acids are found in VLDL particles, which are metabolic precursors of LDL. Higher VLDL levels can drive increased LDL and Apo B production.